Dr Mithal has been the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships. Prominent among these are the Fogarty Fellowship (Harvard Medical School), in 1992-93, JICA fellowship (Japan) in 1996, Boy Frame award of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (Adult Working Group) in 2004, IOF Amgen Health Professionals Award (for ISBMR) in 2005, and various awards and citations from the IMA/DMA from time to time, including Doctor of the year in 2005. He has been cited in the Limca Book of Records since 2005.

His major current areas of research interest include diabetes and the heart, evaluation of new therapies for diabetes, vitamin D nutrition in Indians, and prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Dr Mithal is also principal investigator in several diabetes drug trials.